HIS 101 Chapter 10 Open-Book Reading Quiz Answer
- Which of the following is NOT true of Andrew Jackson?
He was the first president born in a log cabin.
Jackson was openly partisan in his politics, and made no pretense to promote the rights of African Americans, Native Americans, or Women.
By the time of Jackson’s presidency, politics had become a source of entertainment in the USA.
He styled himself the champion of the ‘common man’. And for Jackson, that meant ALL men, not just white men.
Despite profound limitations, politics by the time of Jackson were more “democratic” in the sense that politics was no longer the “arena” for the wealthy and prominent alone.
Which is not true about Jackson as President?
Previous Presidents believed Congress was the primary branch of government (consistent with the spirit of the Constitutional Convention in 1787). Jackson, however, felt the President was “superior”.
Jackson gave his supporters jobs, which is normal in politics today, but at that time it was known as “the spoils systems”.
After being sworn in by Chief Justice John Marshall, Jackson (dressed in mourning) went to the Executive Mansion, where a “mob” were having a party.
Jackson wanted a strong national bank as part of a strong national government.
Jackson supported ‘internal improvements’ that were national and not limited to one state.
The Peggy Eaton Affair was the result of Jackson’s good friend John Eaton marrying a woman who had cheated on her husband (and might have caused his suicide). Jackson was angry with John Eaton for not marrying someone as virtuous as his dead wife, Rachel Jackson.
Which of the following is NOT true about Jackson’s Indian Removal policy?
Indians were promised their own new lands west of the Mississippi River (the “Indian Territory” which now includes the state of Oklahoma).
The Seminole War included fighting in the Everglades in Florida that became the longest and deadliest war ever fought by Nativie Americans (the textbook said a state of war continued until 1934).
The Black Hawk War was fought in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory beween state militia unites and the Sauk and Fox tribes in 1832.
The Cherokee were proud of their traditional ways, and made no attempt at all to adopt the customs of White America. For example, the Cherokee condemned the institution of slavery.
When the Supreme Court (still under John Marshall) found in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that the Cherokee were “a distinct political community” and therefore not under the authority of Georgia law, President Jackson said Marshall “has made his decision, not let him enforce it.”
Of 17,000 Cherokee removed to across the Mississippi River, at least 4,000 died on the “Trail of Tears”. In all, about 100,000 Indians were relocated to the West in the 1820s and 1830s, and their lands were sold.
Which of the following is NOT true about the Bank of the United States (BUS)?
The Bank War between Jackson and Biddle shows that Jackson never understood or appreciated the BUS. And, it showed how for Jackson, politics were personal (as seen with the Peggy Eaton Affair).
The primary benefit of the BUS was its ability to monitor and regulate the 464 state banks.
Its headquarters was in Philadelphia, with 29 branches, the BUS was the largest corporation in the US at the time, and competed with state-chartered banks for local business.
President Jackson disliked the BUS because it did not print enough paper money, which made it difficult for the economy to expand.
By making the renewal of the charter for the second BUS an issue in the 1832, the National Republicans (aka the Anti-Jackson Party) tried to set a trap for Jackson. But, it backfired. Jackson’s veto made it look like he was protecting the common people…
Which of the following is NOT true of Nullification?
The Tariff of Abominations (The Tariff of 1828) favored manufacturing regions in the US like New England, and hurt the South, like South Carolina, by raising the price of imported products. Thus, Calhoun felt states needed to be able to protect themselves from harmful national policies.
Allowing states to nullify federal laws would promote national unity.
Calhoun felt states could “nullify” a federal law if the state deemed it unconstitutional.
John C. Calhoun became one of Jackson’s fiercest critics. He became increasing interested in ‘states’ rights’ as he saw his own state suffer from cheap land to the west, the Panic of 1819, and the Tariff of 1828.
In the Webster-Hayne Debate, South Carolina Senator Robert Hayne argued the North was “invading” the South with harmful national policies. He argued that the states had made the Union, and could therefore nullify federal laws if need be. Sen. Daniel Webster of Massachusetts, said states could not nullify federal laws, as it was the American people, not states, that created the Constitution.
Which of the following is NOT true about Calhoun and Jackson?
Calhoun was Jackson’s Vice President, but Martin van Buren was Jackson’s chosen successor.
In a toast where Jackson said the Union must be preserved, Calhoun declared “the Union, next to our liberty the most dear!”. This is an example of a states’ rights attitude.
Calhoun was the most powerful member of Jackson’s ‘kitchen cabinet’.
Both were slave owners.
Which of the following is NOT true of the Anti-Masonic Party?
Their founding began with the murder of a disgruntled ex-freemason.
The party’s purpose was to “protect republican values from corruption by self-serving, power-hungry Masonic insiders.”
In 1832, they became the first “third party” to enter an election.
John Quincy Adams was against the party, because he was a prominent Freemason himself.
The election of 1832 shows politics become more familiar to us today. The parties held nominating conventions, and Jackson actively campaigned, giving stump speeches, shaking hands, and walking in parades.
Which of the following is NOT true about the Nullification Crisis?
Jackson’s use of the Force Bill meant that the US military ended the crisis by forcing South Carolina, and Calhoun, to submit to the tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Jackson was prepared to use the military (i.e. the Force Bill) to use the US military to “force” compliance with federal law in South Carolina.
Nullification could have resulted in the end of the United States of America as it existed at that time (and today for that matter).
Henry Clay help organize a compromise tariff that allowed both sides to save face.
South Carolina was angry with the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. But the fact that the Federal Government seemed willing to go against the interests of the South, led the nullifiers to believe the Federal Government might also move against slavery one day.
Which of the following is NOT true about the Bank War?
The destruction of the BUS helped encourage the spread of many little “wildcat banks” that helped lead to another economic panic in the late 1830s.
Jackson won the Bank War, and the economy benefited greatly for the next two decades.
Outrage against Jackson even led to the first assassination attempt against a US President. The attempt failed when two guns failed to work properly, and Jackson went after the assailant with his walking stick.
The National Republicans began to call themselves “whigs” because they claimed Jackson was acting like a king.
Biddle’s deflationary policies were trying to bring the economy to a halt to hurt Jackson, who said the BUS under Biddle was “trying to kill me, but I will kill it!”
Despite pro-slavery attempts, and attempts by Andrew Jackson, to stop them, abolitionists used the mail, and petitions, and Congress, to help raise attention to anti-slavery views. John Quincy Adams was a very active anti-slavery member of Congress.
Which of the following is NOT true about Martin Van Buren?
The country’s worst depression to that date began the year Van Buren was inaugurated (at that time inaugurations were in March of the year following the election).
Jackson’s Bank War and Specie Circular helped contribute to the Panic of 1837.
Though Van Buren was blamed, the Panic of 1837 was the result of Andrew Jackson’s REFUSAL to trade wheat and cotton with Great Britain (despite a very good cotton and wheat crop in 1836).
His rival John C. Calhoun, said he was not “of the race of the lion or the tiger,” rather “he belongs to a lower order – the fox.”
He was the first president from New York.
Which of the following is NOT true about life during the Panic of 1837?
Many Americans avoided paying their debts by moving to the Mexican province of Texas.
Unlike Whigs like Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren and many Democrats believed the Federal Government was not meant to help those hurt by the depression. Rather, help should come from state governments.
Whigs nicknamed the President, Martin Van Ruin.
Van Buren created the Independent Treasury Act, designed to keep federal money in the complete control of state banks.
Which of the following is NOT true about the election of 1840?
The slogan ‘Tippecanoe and Tyler too’ was a reference to Harrison’s war experience and vice-presidential pick.
80 percent of white men voted, the highest voter turnout up to that time, or since.
The Whigs ran William Henry Harrison as one of the common people with the cider and log cabin symbols. In reality, Harrison was from a very wealthy Virginian family.
The candidate for the Democratic Party was Henry Clay, but he lost to William Henry Harrison.
Which of the following was NOT an example of how much the country was changing at the time of Jackson’s two terms as president?
More states were abolishing slavery, even in the south, and giving freed slaves the right to vote.
Phenomenal population growth.
He rode to his first inauguration in a carriage pulled by horses, but he left Washington DC eight years later in a train.
The first two-party system was replaced by the second, which included the Democrats and the Whigs.
Andrew Jackson was a friend of democracy, because he protected “humble people” including immigrants and working poor. He was also an enemy of democracy because of his racist views against African Americans and Native Americans, and because he expanded presidential authority “in ways that the founders had never envisioned.”
HIS 101 Chapter 10 Open-Book Reading Quiz Answer